When disposed in dumps or open landfills, waste degrades in aerobic conditions generating higher CO2 emissions and lower methane emissions. Improving waste management and extending access to waste collection will result in more waste being disposed in managed landfills. Sanitary landfills offer conditions favourable for Z-FA-FMK degradation. This leads to higher LFG generation and potentially more GHG emissions from landfills that can be reduced through LFG collection and utilisation for energy purposes, with better impacts on the environment, health and energy supply.
4.2.2. Waste management services in Africa: options and challenges
In principle, several practices are possible for MSW management, which includes waste reduction, recycling and recovery, and for energy recovery from waste . Several technologies are commercially available for energy recovery from waste, such as incineration, biochemical conversion (e.g. anaerobic digestion), which can bring other additional benefits (e.g. fertiliser from anaerobic digestion) and LFG collection. Some technologies entail certain technical and economic difficulties (incineration) or are still not proven at the commercial scale (gasification, pyrolysis). All those options need dedicated supply chain management to be set up at local level and some pathways for Africa, all relevant from both the technological and economical point of view, are shown in Fig. 2.